Theory of Change for Womens Community Support Group Describe the program logic Explain logic of change ( theory of change) that underpins it Who are we aiming to support and why-the target group This program is aimed at supporting a group of young women, aged between twelve and sixteen to overcome personal challenges. As it stands, these women have exhibited signs of social disengagement. This disengagement impacted not only on these womens emotional wellbeing, it has invariably impacted on their social wellbeing, including their school performance. Some of the reasons for such disengagement include but is not limited to bullying, family disadvantages, such as loss of parent, drug abuse and more. The purpose of this intervention is ensure that these women are provided with tools and motivation so as to re-engage with the community and maintain school attendance. Changes that the initiative seeks to support The initiative being proposed here is what Rogers (2008) calls complex intervention. Complex in the sense that it is both recursive and emergence. It is recursive because the cause/effect relationship may be mutual multidirectional and multilateral, Rogers (2008) citing Patton (1997). Changing behavior can be on such problem. There are no assurances that participants will not regress. The project involves different people with different life histories and attitudes. The intervention is emergence in the sense that the specific outcomes and means to achieve them emerge during implementation, as explained by Rogers (2008). This is due to the notion that the intervention is a wicked problem. Wicked in that what is being dealt with maybe a symptom of other problems, there is no right and wrong or true and false and failure may not be tolerated , Rittel and Weber (1973). Process or Sequence of change The process started with the recruitment of 10 women in years seven to ten, aged between 10 and 12. These women were judged to be suitable for the intervention because they exhibited signs of disengagement from the community. The program was to run weekly basis for three hours per session. Two schools were picked to host the program, with sessions run by an arts professional. The classroom is set out to provide a safe environment, which allows for better interaction amongst participants. The women have access to mentors as well. Tools provided include artwork materials such as pushes, canvases, table easels, aprons and oil paints. The main activity required participants to reproduce easily recognizable impressionistic masterpieces. Which allowed for novices to produce own art works that reflected own abilities. Which led to the women absorbing creative skills and aesthetic experience, leading to women to make connection with their surroundings. This in turn taught the women listening, observation and painting skills. Such skills would lead to self self awareness and confidence. Apart from artwork activities, participants have access to two to three adults with whom they can freely interact. The adults are composed of a policewoman, youth worker and a mental health-worker. Interaction with these individuals leads to participants gaining trust with authority and better mental health care and a better understanding of law. The classes also include a meditation session, that focuses on mindfulness and increased calm and emotional regulation. This is expected to lead to self-care and capacity to manage fear, anxiety and stress. The expectation is that this would improve self-confidence. It is hoped that the program lead to change of behavior and hence re-engagement with the community Assumptions According to Rogers (2008) assumptions are informed by beliefs and knowledge. In this project, it is assumed that all the women in this program have an interest in art. While the fact may be that some women do not like art at all. This may be due to the belief that local people in the area like expressing themselves through art. It is also assumed that they will get some support from the community outside the center. Another major assumption is that attendee will continue to practice meditations after the end of the program. Limitations At this stage, there is no support provided for the community surrounding these women. They are still living in that same environment that is causing the disengagement. This might greatly impact on the outcomes of the initiative. Avenues for interaction with other women after the program is also not assured. References Rittel, H.W. J. and Webber, M.M. (1973). Dilemmas in a General Theory of Planning, Policy Sciences. 4 (2): 155-169. Rogers, P. (2008) Using Programme Theory to Evaluate Complicated and Complex Aspects of Intervention. Evaluation. Sage Publications, Vol 14.
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Macroeconomics - Case Study Example
In other words, the level of investment determines the level of saving and not the other way around (Michl 2002, p.43). The point has been argued for the next 70 years and both theories have at times fallen in and out of favour.
Thomas Palley of the AFL-CIO wrote in a 1996 paper that, "The view that saving causes investment is widely identified with classical macroeconomics, while the view that investment causes saving is widely identified with Keynesian macroeconomics. However, deeper inspection reveals that both theoretical perspectives are capable of producing bidirectional causality, and this limits the usefulness of theory for resolving this crucial matter" (p.5). Supply side economics has run headlong into the demand side theories and have resulted in numerous, and yet valid, academic arguments on both sides. According to theory, "...saving can never be different from intended investment, in equilibrium" (McCain 2007). The Paradox of Thrift is one explanation, though not the only one, of how savings can influence an economy's production and increase the unemployment rate.
Supply side economics maintains that the marginal tax rate, the rate at which the next dollar earned is taxed, directly influences people's propensity to work, save, and invest (Gwartney 2002). By reducing the marginal tax rate investors are stimulated to invest in a business that may be too risky under a higher tax rate. Lower tax rates may spur people to work harder or longer hours and save their money. Indeed, the tax rate has often been used by governments to stimulate investment. According to Gwartney (2002), "Of eighty-six countries with a personal income tax, fifty-five reduced their top marginal tax rate during the 1985-90 period, while only two (Luxembourg and Lebanon) increased their top rate. Countries that substantially reduced their top marginal tax rates include Australia, Brazil, France, Italy, Japan, New Zealand, Sweden, and the United Kingdom". Many critics saw these deep tax cuts as a bonanza for the rich and argued that the increased tax revenues during this period were simply the result of an in increase in demand. However, during this period of tax cuts in the United States, "...the income tax revenue collected from the top 10 percent of earners rose from $150.6 billion in 1981 to $199.8 billion in 1988, an increase of 32.7 percent" (Gwartney 2002). It can be inferred that a lower rate and increased revenue were the result of a massive increase in wealth for the top 10% that came from capital investment. It would seem that supply side economics had proven itself once and for all.
Demand side theorists continued to point to the Paradox of Thrift and its effect on consumption and production. Advocates of demand side economics contend that, "...a decrease in spending leads to a decrease in employment, which leads to a further decrease in spending, which leads to a further decrease in employment, which leads to a yet further decrease in spending, and so on" (Thies, 1997). Some economists contend that corporate cost cutting is a path to a 'corporate paradox of thrift' which could lead to massive layoffs and firings' (Shostik 2002). Individual savings decreases spending for the consumer class and so any increase in savings decreases consumption and increases
How Society Viewed Love and Marriage in Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austen
Jane Austen was born in 1775 and spent most of her life in the
countryside in a village called Steventon, Hampshire. She was the
daughter of a clergyman, Reverend George Austen and her mother was
called Cassandra Austen. She had a brief education starting at the age
of seven and ending at eleven, when she settled at home. Like women in
Austenâ€™s society, she had little education due to the beliefs at the
time; the only education she would have received would likely have
been to up her social status, through marriage. She wrote â€œPride and
Prejudiceâ€ to portray societyâ€™s views of love and marriage to the
reader and to shoe that marriages take place for different reasons. We
see throughout the novel the excessive number of marriages and
courtships that take place.
The opening sentence â€œItâ€™s a truth universally acknowledged, that a
single man in the possession of a good fortune must be in want of a
wifeâ€ introduces the theme of love, marriage and money in an ironic
way. The irony is contained in the fact that marriage is meant to be
about love and happiness but clearly revolves around wealth and social
standing. In the novel we see two established marriages take place;
The Bennetâ€™s and the Gardinerâ€™s. Throughout the novel four other
marriages take place; Lydia and Mr Wickham, Charlotte Lucas and Mr
Collins, Elizabeth and Darcy and Jane and Mr Bingley.
The marriage between Mr Collins and Charlotte Lucas is purely based on
financial and social security not love or appearance, It was extremely
common fro women in Austens era to marry and save themselves from
spinsterhood and social security and to gain, the above mentioned,
...however, that Darcy is her ideal match.
Intelligent and forthright, he too has a tendency to judge too hastily
and harshly, and his high birth and wealth make him overly proud and
overly conscious of his social status. When he proposes to her, for
instance, he dwells more on how unsuitable a match she is than on her
charms, beauty, or anything else complimentary, â€œnot handsome enoughâ€.
Here Darcy is reflecting societyâ€™s views of love and marriage because
many people married for higher social status and financial status
rather than for love and beauty.
Pride and prejudice is a love story but does not reflect the romantic
side. It gives the reader a sense of all the different kinds of
relationships, none of them are the same. It shows that the ideal
couple is difficult to find, the established marriages in the book
being The Bennetâ€™s and the Gardinerâ€™s.
Write something about yourself. No need to be fancy, just an overview.